Category: Publishing

  • Free Your Diagrams From the Clutches of Microsoft Office

    Microsoft Office can be used to make charts and diagrams in their office suite. While useful, it’s been traditionally difficult to free them from the clutches of Office. Your creations often end up being converted to images, leading to a drop in quality.

    So, what do you do if you want to use your Charts and SmartArt in your EPUB or website? Fortunately, there’s a solution that promotes portability and flexibility in the final design.


    Inkscape, is an open-source vector image editor that saves images as SVG. An image format that:

    • Is supported by 98.9% of all browsers.
    • Sees wide application support, including Microsoft Office.
    • Supported by EPUB Version 3.

  • Clean Manuscripts Using Markdown

    Modern word processors work with the What You See is What You Get paradigm. While that’s mostly true for simple documents, inconsistencies are often introduced into complex documents. This includes but is not limited to:

    • Formatting differences introduced by Copy and Paste operations.
    • Different styles applied throughout. E.g. Some paragraphs are 1.2 line spaces, while others are set to 1.15 line spaces.
    • Selection errors. E.g. The user selected more than expected while formatting text, such as Italics.

    Some of these examples may go undetected until the work is published. These inconsistencies further complicate fault finding an EPUB, as they lead to additional styles and tags being introduced into the code.

    Markdown is a human markup language that permits users to use formatting like Bold, Italics, Monospace, and Strike Through without any knowledge of the underlying code. This simple syntax can be leveraged to generate clean manuscripts.

    Sample Markdown Text

    # Clean Manuscripts Using Markdown
    Modern word processors often subscribe to the [What You See is
    What You Get]( paradigm.
    While true for simple documents, inconsistencies are easy to
    find in complex documents. These include but are not limited to:
    * Formatting differences introduced by _Copy_ and _Paste_
    * Different styles applied throughout. E.g. Some paragraphs are
      1.2 line spaces, while others are set to 1.15 line spaces.
    * Selection errors. E.g. The user selected more than expected
      prior to formatting text, such as _Italics_.
    [Markdown]( is a human
    markup language that permits users to use formatting like
    **Bold**, _Italics_, `Monospace`, and ~~Strike Through~~ without
    any knowledge of the underlying code. The simple Markdown’s
    syntax can be leveraged to generate _clean_ manuscripts.

    Fortunately, Google Docs offers extensions that converts documents to and from Markdown on demand. The overall process is straightforward:

    • Convert the manuscript to Markdown.
    • Confirm the formatting.
    • Create a new document with the desired styles.
    • Import the Markdown manuscript into the new document.
    • Export to other formats as needed.

  • Emojis in Your Manuscript

    You won’t typically find Emojis in formal writing. However, they’re commonly used in digital communications. You’ll find them on social media, text messaging, and a myriad of other apps available on desktop and mobile devices.

    Reference image for text messaging between two parties.
    Reference image for text messaging between two parties.

    While using Emojis in a manuscript mimics text conversations between two parties, there are challenges:

    • While Emojis are a UNICODE standard, their implementations are copyrighted. Reproducing these for print may violate the services’ or devices’ terms of use;
    • Implementations don’t always support the full set or add some of their own. This creates challenges for maintaining a consistent look and feel across all devices and mediums; and
    • Emojis are often used as fonts. Fonts may be stripped out or replaced by the printer/publisher.

    Here are some points to consider:


  • Word Takes Liberties With Your Images

    You want to insert images for print into your manuscript. Using Microsoft Word, the images are inserted, and their size and position adjusted to suit the content. When happy with the end result, you save your work and submit.

    After a test print, you realise the quality is lower than expected. Furthermore, attempts to increase their size makes the image blurry, and pixelated. What happened?

    By default, Microsoft Word resizes images to reduce the document’s file size. This happens to any image over 220 DPI, a limit that cannot be increased, which is a lower density than most commercial printers’ support.

    What can you do?


  • Black and White Space

    Your manuscript is formatted with carefully selected images and Kindle Direct Publishing‘s previewer confirms everything is in place.

    However, the images look different when viewing the proof. Those in colour, or containing shades of grey have added white-space. This is typically shown as circles of black ink surrounded by white-space. Why is that?

    Simple answer: Halftone.

    Below, a table demonstrating the effect of converting images in various states to halftone. Note, these were generated using a filter, so the actual look and feel on paper will vary.

    ColourEmoji of a mermaid in colour.Emoji of a mermaid in colour after halftone.
    GreyscaleEmoji of a mermaid in greyscale.Emoji of a mermaid in greyscale after halftone.
    Black and WhiteEmoji of a mermaid in black and white.Emoji of a mermaid in black and white after halftone.
    Grey and WhiteEmoji of a mermaid in grey and white.Emoji of a mermaid in grey after halftone.

    All emojis designed by OpenMoji – the open-source emoji and icon project. License: CC BY-SA 4.0

    What Can I Do About It?

    Your options are straightforward:

    • Keep it simple, limit yourself to line art;
    • Convert to Halftone to take control of the process; and
    • Accept the printer will process the images for you.

  • Mobile Manuscripts

    Authors are as varied as the stories they tell. Some write by hand, channeling the spirit of monks and scribes. Others prefer the feel of a typewriter, which is often portrayed in movies and novels.

    Technology has allowed writers to venture into the digital realm. While authors like George R.R. Martin remain stubbornly entrenched to the technology they adopt; others look towards the horizon for technologies to aid their journey.

    Many of us own phones that have more processing power than what was available to NASA during the Apollo program. However, this technology has not been widely adopted for content creation.


  • Spiral Development for the Literary World

    I’ve worked on software development projects in the past. So, once I began writing, I fell back on the tricks of the trade to refine my work.

    My writing process borrows from the Spiral development model. As an author, this permits me to power through an initial draft, and polish the work over several iterative cycles.

    Diagram denoting the steps taken for the Spiral Development in the Literary Word loop.
    Diagram 1. Spiral Development for the Literary World

    To guide progress, I track trends to measure success. The following section outlines improvements that were made over time for two (2) of my releases:

    The Grand

    tutorial,spiral development,manuscript,literary,books,writing,writing process steps,writing process
    Diagram 2. Shows the progress made for The Grand over nine (9) cycles

    What’s with the yellow line? While others measure the number of revisions within a measurable area, the yellow line measures words between revisions. I.e., the more words you have in between the better.

    Visually, the changes are more dramatic:

    Dark Hearts

    Diagram showing the progress made for Dark Hearts over seven (7) cycles.
    Diagram 3. Shows the progress made for Dark Hearts over seven (7) cycles.

    Again, the visual changes are more dramatic:

    The Difference

    The Grand (2017) was written with little feedback. Without release pressures, there was plenty of time to refine. After the book was published, several changes were made to the manuscript to account for feedback in reviews.

    Dark Hearts (2022) involved external feedback throughout which led to more work up front. Once I got near the one thousand (1000) revision count for the manuscript, I knew that it’s time to pass the work on to my editor.

    The Process

    The process is roughly four steps as follows:

    Working Version

    Convert the manuscript into the format to be used for revision. While I convert the manuscript to an eBook, there are other methods available:

    • Printing the manuscript.
    • Modifying the manuscript styles to force yourself to view the content differently. For example, change the font, size, and colour.
    • Use Text-to-Speech to read out the manuscript.

    The goal is to avoid reviewing the document in the same way you’d write or edit. I often call this switching from content creation to reader mode.

    The Great Pause

    After my working copy is complete, I set the project aside and tackle something new. Tasks range from reading a novel to painting the house.

    If you want to maintain momentum, you may want to consider:

    • Working on cover.
    • Working on the blurb.
    • Preparing the website for the release.
    • Preparing the marketing material. Or.
    • Writing a newsletter to mark your progress.

    This phase seeks to take your mind off the manuscript and approach the work with fresh eyes in the ensuing steps. This increases the chances of being objective when reviewing the manuscript.

    A good example about this behaviour is an article on how the brain interprets words. Note how this paragraph is legible for many despite the spelling.

    Aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn’t mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoetnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be at the rghit pclae. The rset can be a toatl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe.

    If your mind can read such garbled text. Imagine what it can do when intimately familiar with the text?


    It’s entirely possible to edit too much. A good sign is when you’re skimming the material vice reading. If you become sick and tired of reading your own manuscript, it’s time to take a break and step away.


    Feedback is critical for this process, otherwise our creation exists within a bubble. While challenging for new writers, engaging others is a good way to catch plot holes, or fill in the details that your readers will be looking for.

    There are different types of feedback:

    • Alpha Readers. Alpha readers are typically engaged during the writing phase. These should be trusted readers that you can bounce ideas off.
    • Beta Readers. These readers are engaged later in the process, and for me that’s around revision 2 or 3. For new readers, it’s a good idea to provide them with a list of questions to work through.
    • Editors. Editors here will focus on story structure and pacing who help you keep the reader engaged. Some editors may advise you that there could be significant structuring or restructuring of a manuscript, so engage them early.


    Good editors are worth their weight in gold. Because of the investment, some independent authors rely on Alpha and Beta readers to address developmental concerns.

    I don’t recommend engaging a developmental editor without prior interaction. Many will do a sample for you, which is a great way to determine if the opportunity exists for a lasting working relationship.

    This step is often concurrent with The Pause. This is an opportunity to distribute a working copy to readers in order to solicit input and opinions.

    This step can employ services like Wattpad and Patreon for enabling interested readers to follow your progress and interact.

    Revise and Implement

    In this step, you’ll revise chapters, tweak, and make corrections to the content. This process is sometimes referred to as redlining and was traditionally done using pen and paper. The term also evokes memories of school papers dripping in red ink.


    Tools like Grammarly and ProWritingAid are invaluable during this stage. They can help with your writing and even assist you in finding issues like inconsistencies in spelling, echoes (repeated sentences and lines), complex sentences, and so forth.

    However, these programs are not perfect and should not be trusted blindly. It’s often possible to have the tool recommend you add a comma, only to recommend its removal the next time you run through.

    I use a Kindle Keyboard which permits me to type in comments. These comments are annotations of changes that will need to be made to the manuscript later. Early revisions tend to generate lots of corrections, so I transcribe often to avoid data loss.

    tutorial,spiral development,manuscript,literary,books,writing,writing process steps,writing process
    Diagram 4. Mock-up view of a review process on a Kindle Keyboard

    Over the cycles, the number of revisions drop in number and complexity. Whereas during the final cycle, I’m looking for things like elusive typos.

    This stage also permits you to adjust chapters, including their order. You may opt to add, rewrite, split or remove chapters. Just like you would add, fix or remove features in a software project.


    Start the process all over again. Create a new version of the manuscript, take a break, revise and implement. With every revision look at your metrics to measure progress.

    Towards the end you’ll know when it’s ready. For me, that’s when I hit one thousand (1000) revisions for whole of the manuscript.

    Revisions may have different goals. The first should be about adjusting the structure and detail, while later revisions concentrate on trimming the fat and finding those elusive typos.

    A good way of staying focused is to track your progress. Otherwise, you’ll end up in an infinite loop. You have to find that point where the manuscript is ‘good enough‘ to be passed on.

    After ‘Good Enough’

    This is the stage where you hand off the manuscript to someone else for a sober second look. Primarily someone who will review the document for lingering errors. I use my editor for this step, but a trusted reader can help as well.

    Alas there is no rest for the weary, as there’s still work to be done before release. This includes but is not limited to:

    • Normalise your manuscript (editors often help with this step).
    • Format your manuscript for print, and eBook.
    • Integrate the cover with the manuscript.
    • Release your book.
    • Advertise!

    More on Editors

    There are many types of editors. Here is a distinction between the types and when you should engage them in the process:

    • Developmental. Major story and character points, early in the process, no line editing or proofreading.
    • Substantive/Content Editors. Once you have a solid story, it’s time to catch lingering plot issues.
    • Copy/Line Editors. Your story itself is solid, now it’s time to make the writing tighter, sharper, and stronger; improve the reading experience.
    • Proofreaders. This is absolutely last step before you go to print, addressing only basic punctuation and grammar, but not touching the story or the writing style.

    Some editors will perform one or several of these roles. In many cases, it’s prudent to get another editor for proofreading as a final check of the manuscript.

    That’s it!

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